Introduction: Studying the survival factors of leukemia patients can lead to a reduction in healthcare costs. This study aimed to evaluate the survival rate and potential predictive factors in leukemia patients in northeast Iran.
Methods: Baseline demographic and clinical data of patients referred to Ghaem Hospital between 2014 and 2019 were extracted from their medical records. The survival rates were determined by gathering information from phone calls or archived files.
Results: This cohort study consisted of 302 patients with a mean age of 41.09±19.09 years. Among them, 127 (43.3%) had acute lymphoid leukemia, while 166 (56.7%) had myeloid leukemia. The mean overall survival time for all patients was 50.81 months. However, the mean overall survival time for patients with lymphoid leukemia (61.7 months) was significantly higher (P<0.001) than that for patients with myeloid leukemia (41.1 months). Moreover, lymphoid patients had significantly higher one-month and one-year survival rates (93% and 72.8%) than the myeloid group (81% and 53.7%) (P=0.002 and P=0.001). However, significant difference did not exist in the five-year survival rate between the lymphoid and myeloid groups (26.2% vs 18.2%, P=0.174). Cox regression analysis indicated that patient survival was correlated with the type of leukemia (1.45, 95%CI=1.10-8.92, P=0.011), age, hemoglobin levels, as well as WBC, RBC, neutrophil, and platelet count.
Conclusion:Our findings indicated that patients with lymphoid leukemia exhibited a higher survival rate than those with myeloid leukemia. Survival outcomes were dependent on patient’s age, leukemia type, and levels of WBC, RBC, neutrophil, platelet, and hemoglobin levels.