Document Type : Review


1 Student Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia-Iran

2 Associate Professor of Pediatric Interventional Cardiology, Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicinie, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 MD, Research Fellow, Pediatric and Congenital Cardiology Division, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a common condition, affecting 8 in 1,000 live births, and is not limited to pediatric cases anymore due to advancements in medical techniques. Thus, the enhancement of chronic disorders and the development of the comorbidities become noticeable and evaluation on the cardiovascular risk factors in patients is necessity.

Method: A systematic review of English and Persian literature was done by using electronic search in databases of Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Up-to-date, and ProQuest from 2000 to 2021. The study was focused on the all article types with the theme of the risk factors on congenital heart disease in adults. Initially, 200 papers were extracted and evaluated by the research team in terms of inclusion criteria; and at last 74 papers were selected. The association between adults with congenital heart disease and risk of cardiovascular disease by conducting a narrative was evaluated.

Result: out of six groups of risk factors which were recognized for adults with congenital heart disease, the level of physical activity is highly impressive. The findings showed that while women were less active and more likely to be obese, male patients had a greater prevalence of smoking and high blood pressure. Although age is discussable specifically based on the other medical factors, sex was not individually determined for the self-effective risk factor.

Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors remained the noticeable leading obsession across time in the world. Alarmingly, the increasing rate of adult CHDs require best healthcare investments.