Document Type : Review
- Mohaddeseh Sadat Moghaddam 1
- Niyusha Torabzadeh Khorasani 1
- Reza Assaran Darban 1
- Hamid reza Rahimi 2
1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
2 Department of Medical genetics and molecular medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Acute respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is an uncommon respiratory illness that is transmitted primarily by respiratory droplets or direct contact with an infected person. The COVID-19 initially appeared in late 2019 in Wuhan, China, and spread everywhere around the globe. Earlier in 2003, the coronavirus was known due to the human SARS-CoV virus, which infected 8,000 people and caused 800 deaths in southeast Asia and Canada. It should be mentioned that in 2012, another coronavirus, called Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, infected Saudi Arabia and 27 other countries. The SARS-CoV2 belongs to a family of viruses called Coronaviruses that can infect bats, birds, pigs, cows, and different mammals. Some plant extracts are shown to inhibit microorganism replication and may be utilized in medication to treat infectious and non-infectious diseases, one of which is chamomile. chamomile medicinal plant, that has 120 biologically active compounds, the most necessary of which are flavonoids, like apigenin and luteolin, that are shown to possess antiviral activity.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a communicable disease caused by the SARS-corona virus which has a high potential for transmission through personal contact (1). Coronaviruses (COVs) are an outsized family of viruses found in all humans and animals. They are single-stranded positive RNA viruses that have the most important famous ordination (30Kb) among RNA viruses (2,3). Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) represents a significant cluster of COVs related to respiratory diseases ranging from the common cold to severe respiratory illness and bronchitis.
the foremost common symptoms of SARS are cough, high fever (>38° C), chills, seizures, headache, dizziness, progressive chest radiographs, and blood diseases. The incidence higher than 60 years.will increase up to 43rd to 55th (4). According to the most recent statistics obtained from the World Health Organization as of April 25, 2020, the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in 213 countries was 2,686,785 and the number of confirmed deaths was 184,681 while 82,089 of which were new cases (fig 1) (5). Before the appearance of COVID-19, six strains of the virus were antecedently famous to be human pathogens. However, not all of them are unhealthful. as an example, Hcov-Hku1, Hcov Nl63, Hcov-oc43, and Hcov229E solely cause colds. In distinction, each severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus have had significant mortality rates over the past 20 years (9.6% for SARS. and will be a promising drug target (17).Apigenin is the most vital flavonoid in chamomile, most of which is glucoside and a little quantity of that is free (fig.2) (12). Luteolin is one of the common flavonoids in edible and medicative plants and is employed to treat a large variety of pathogens (fig 3) (15). and 34 for MERS-Cov). Its mortality rate is unknown since the malady remains in its infancy (6). There is presently no specific treatment available for COVID-19 and analysis of treatment is still in progress. However, the functions of used treatments are restricted to stopping the disease and the certified treatments prevent any complications and injury to the body. Some early studies have examined the utilization of potential compounds, like the protease inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir, that usually treat patients with nonheritable immunological disorder virus (HIV) and nonheritable immunological disorder syndrome. alternative antiviral therapies rumored from human unhealthful Covs embody nucleoside analogs, neuraminidase inhibitors, remedial, umifenovir (arbidol), tenofovir disoproxil, and lamiodine (3TC) (7). Chamomile is a perennial plant native to Europe and is one of the most widely used medicative plants for hundreds of years (8). In Iran, it is a member of the composite family and is widely known by two species of German chamomile (Matricaria) and Roman chamomile (Chamae melum Nobile). German chamomile is specifically the most commonly used kind for medicative functions (9). It has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antispasmodic, and sedative properties (10). Chamomile has 120 compounds together with 28 terpenoids and 36 flavonoids (11). Flavonoids are lush phenolic compounds in plants, and their effects on human health are usually due to their potential ability to scale back the concentration of free radical scavenging in biological systems that defend against antioxidants (8). The biological activity of chamomile is principal because of phenolic compounds. Primarily, the flavonoids are apigenin, quercetin, patoltin, luteolin, and their glucosides, similarly because of the main components of the extracted essential oils, like its oxides and azoles (12). Flavonoids are composed of roughly 5,000 compounds that with chemicals include a standard phenylchrome structure (C6-C6-C3) with one or a lot of hydroxyl substituents and are typically categorized into flavonoids, flavanols (catechins), isoflavones, Flavonols, and anthocyanins. Flavonoids are shown to possess a range of biological effects on mammalian systems in vitro, similarly on the act as free radical scavengers and antioxidants in vivo, with mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral effects. Additionally, alternative effects of flavonoids are attenuated plasma levels of low-density lipoproteins, inhibition of thrombocyte aggregation, and attenuated cell proliferation. These effects are associated with their actions in inhibiting the cell cycle, reducing oxidative stress, rising the effectiveness of detoxification enzymes, causing apoptosis, and stimulating the system (13). Flavonoids are common nutrients that are found in foods, like vegetables, fruits, and herbs (14).Some flavonoids, above all apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, amentoflavone 28, and purine have antiviral activities (4). The antiviral activity of some flavonoids against coronaviruses is directly mediated by inhibition of protease 3c (3cl pro) (15). Protease 3c is important for the replication of acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-COV) and will be a promising drug target (16). Apigenin is the most vital flavonoid in chamomile, most of which is glucoside and a little quantity of that is free (11). Luteolin is one of the common flavonoids in edible and medicative plants and is employed to treat a large variety of pathogens (14).
Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) extract contains its apigenin and Luteolin (causing reduction of leukocyte infiltration), a-Bisabolol (which has an anti-inflammatory effects), Chamazulene (that provides anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects), Guaiazulene (antipyretic), Matricin (Anti-inflammatory effects), Due to , the above mentioned alternative appreciated effects, chamomile can function as a promising treatment for Covid-19 (18).
In a study on the replication of the coronavirus family, extracts of three plants, namely chamomile, black seed, and citrus Sinensis, were examined. Based on the results of the aforementioned study, the extracts secreted interleukin-8 and expressed the transient receptor potential proteins (TRPs) gene as well as the virus load. Moreover, it was found that chamomile extract had the best impact among them. The TRPs belong to the ion channel families that are accountable for the spread of cellular functions, and the regulation of intracellular calcium concentrations. The interactions of the nucleocapsid (N) and nonstructural protein three (nsp3) are necessary for CoV amplification. The nsp3 interacts with the N protein through its EF motif site, that contains a calcium-binding domain, which implies that this interaction will be calcium-dependent. intracellular calcium signaling has been shown to extend reactive oxygen species in mitochondria, which could be a replication of the respiratory disorder virus. The antiviral infection will conjointly increase the intracellular calcium concentrations. These findings recommend that intracellular calcium concentrations could also be necessary for viral replication. Hence, viruses will target cellular mechanisms that regulate this concentration (19).
Although the utilization of flavonoids against COVID-19 has not been clinically studied, it will be a promising strategy due to its wide range of biological activities (20).
1.3. Cutibacterium species
Cutibacterium species, formerly known as Propionibacterium species, are non-sporulating, Gram-positive anaerobic bacilli and commensal bacteria of the skin. These non-pathogenic bacteria are common contaminants of the blood and body fluid cultures. These species are slow-growing and require at least six days for growth in cultures (40). They belong to the microflora of the skin, conjunctiva, external ear canal, mouth, and upper respiratory tract, and sometimes, the intestines, urethra, and vagina (41-43).
Moreover, Cutibacterium acnes is a common contaminant of blood cultures and is generally assumed to be non-pathogenic in humans (44). Cutibacterium species can cause infective endocarditis and BSI, especially in carriers of mechanical heart valves, pacemakers, or implantable cardioverter defibrillators, given their ability to adhere to foreign body surfaces and produce biofilms (Table 3) (45).
This review aimed to determine the prevalence of child abuse and its related factors in Iran. The results showed that the prevalence of child abuse in Iran was in critical condition, and both genders of children suffered from emotional abuse more than physical abuse and neglect. According to the findings of this study, the main source of abuse was from family members and children’s parents, while families and parents were considered the most important emotional and support center.
Therefore, this issue shows the importance of raising the level of knowledge and awareness of families and community about cognition and attention to the emotional needs and the development of children, the proper methods of child-rearing, and the consequences caused by physical and emotional punishment of the child on the spirit, psychology, and future of children more than ever. On the other hand, based on the evidence of the cultural, educational, and social backgrounds, family is effective on the severity of the abuses. Consequently, the formation of organized and targeted support centers for the identification of vulnerable families and children is necessary. These centers can be helpful in understanding the relevant factors and reducing and removing them, in coordination with school parents and family health centers. In general, educational and preventive programs are recommended to prevent the occurrence of child abuse.
Child maltreatment through physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence, causes substantial adverse health, educational, and behavioral consequences throughout the lifespan (20). Therefore, policymakers should pay special attention to this issue, follow specific policies, and design special plans to prevent child abuse in Iran. Most developed countries use the “mandatory report of child abuse and neglect” as a way to identify and prevent child abuse (41). According to this law, professionals working with children should report suspected cases of child abuse to authorities. This model is as practical and effective as it has been proved in developing countries, as a result, it can be recommended and used in our country.
Although it was tried to gather most of the relevant data for the current study, the focus on published articles alone was a limitation to this study, which could affect the results. Regarding this, to achieve a better estimate of child abuse in Iran, more investigation on unpublished data is required.
Child abuse has many negative effects on childish and adolescent health. It seems that child abuse in Iran is in critical condition; therefore, policymakers should adopt measures to solve this problem and prevent it by designing special programs and effective policies in Iran.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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