Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) also known as motor neuron disease is a destroying neurodegenerative disease that mainly affects the upper and lower motor neurons. It is now believed that primary diagnosis and treatment are essential and useful. Early diagnosis with newer methods prevents the progression of the disease and allows you to choose the right treatment at a more appropriate time. Earlier and more efficient treatment becomes visible to significantly improve the prognosis of this disease. In this article, we define the disease and the methods of diagnosing it, Then the mechanisms of the disease and treatment options based on these are described. ultimately the old and new methods for treatment ALS were reviewed. These methods include: small molecule, nanotechnology, protein therapy, gene therapy, bone marrow transplantation, stem cell therapy, miRNA therapy and gene editing. The purpose of this review article is to help diagnose and select a suitable treatment and improve patients more effectively.